Apply Value Theory to Examine Values Associated With Spectator Sports

Thursday, April 25, 2013
Exhibit Hall Poster Area 2 (Convention Center)
Li-Shiue Gau, Asia University, Taichung City, Taiwan and Jong-Chae Kim, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Hackensack, NJ

Background/Purpose Value theory defined personal values as conceived desirable goals in accordance with the requirements of societal demands. Although values are inhered in the perception of a cognizing subject, values can be delivered in relation to an object such as spectator sports. This study applied value theories to develop a scale of spectator sport values.

Method According to value theories and prior research, a nine-dimensional scale of spectator sport values were developed including conformity, power, enjoyment, achievement, sociability, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, and benevolence, each with 3 or 4 items. Participants were asked to rate the extent of each value respondents can acquire through watching NBA, MLB, or CPBL (Chinese Professional Baseball League) (using a 5-point scale ranging from 1 disagree to 5 strongly agree). The questionnaire was distributed to the full-time students from middle, senior-high schools to a college in Taiwan and to non-students. Totally, 884 respondents were recruited with 669 students and 580 males.

Analysis/Results The reliabilities of the 9 dimensions were between 0.73 and 0.88, exceeding the recommended level 0.70. The values with the highest means were power (3.92), enjoyment (3.87), and conformity (3.83) whereas the value with the lowest mean was self-direction (3.61). The correlation coefficients among the 9 dimensions were between 0.42 and 0.70. Confirmatory factor analyses showed RMSEA, 0.057, less than .07, CFI, 0.924, greater than .90, and PNFI, 0.723, greater than .60, indicating an acceptable model fit.

Conclusions Based on value theories, the nine-dimensional scale of spectator sport values was developed and valid.

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