As an interactive video game that requires fast-foot
movement, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) has recently been incorporated into
physical education. Currently at least several hundred schools in many states
are using DDR as a regular part of their physical education classes (Schiesel,
2007). However, empirical work examining students' physical activity (PA)
levels and situational motivation in DDR has been scarce. This study attempts
to explore the mean differences of and correlations between students' PA levels
and situational motivation in DDR, as well as gender and grade differences
among the study variables.
One hundred ninety urban junior high school students
(7th-9th grades) participated in a 2-week DDR unit in physical education. Students'
in-class PA levels were measured by ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers (Pensacola, FL) for one class in the second week. They also reported their situational
motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external
regulation [ER] and amotivation [AM]) at the end of the class using a
standardized questionnaire (Guay et al., 2000). Descriptive analyses determined
students' percentages of time in various PA intensity levels (sedentary, light,
and moderate to vigorous intensity [MVPA]) and situational motivation, and the
relations between students' PA levels and situational motivation. A 2 x 3 (gender × grade) MANOVA was performed to
examine the mean differences of students' PA levels and situational motivation
by gender and grade.
Students were motivated to participate in DDR (i.e., MIM
= 4.81, MIR = 4.8), but their percentages of time in MVPA
were extremely low (i.e., MMVPA = 4.95%, Mlight
= 28.77%, Msedentary = 66.28%). Pearson correlations yielded
positive relations between time in MVPA and IM or IR (r s = .15) and
between light PA and IM (r = .16). Inversely, sedentary time was
negatively related to IM or IR (r = -.16 to -.18). The MANOVA yielded a
significant main effect for gender, Wilks' Lambda = .92, F (7, 178) = 2.34,
p = .03, η2 = .08. Follow-up tests revealed that boys scored
higher on IM and ER than girls did (p s < .05).
The results revealed that students were not physically
active in DDR as they spent far less than 50% of the class time in MVPA,
although they were highly motivated for this activity. Future studies should
focus on effects of skill levels on MVPA and strategies to maximize students'
MVPA in DDR.